Can we regenerate heart muscle with stem cells? | Chuck Murry

Can we regenerate heart muscle with stem cells? | Chuck Murry

I’d like to tell you
about a patient named Donna. In this photograph,
Donna was in her mid-70s, a vigorous, healthy woman, the matriarch of a large clan. She had a family history
of heart disease, however, and one day, she had the sudden onset
of crushing chest pain. Now unfortunately, rather than
seeking medical attention, Donna took to her bed for about 12 hours
until the pain passed. The next time she went
to see her physician, he performed an electrocardiogram, and this showed that she’d had
a large heart attack, or a “myocardial infarction”
in medical parlance. After this heart attack,
Donna was never quite the same. Her energy levels progressively waned, she couldn’t do a lot of the physical
activities she’d previously enjoyed. It got to the point where she couldn’t
keep up with her grandkids, and it was even too much work
to go out to the end of the driveway to pick up the mail. One day, her granddaughter
came by to walk the dog, and she found her grandmother
dead in the chair. Doctors said it was a cardiac arrhythmia
that was secondary to heart failure. But the last thing that I should tell you is that Donna was not just
an ordinary patient. Donna was my mother. Stories like ours are,
unfortunately, far too common. Heart disease is the number one killer
in the entire world. In the United States, it’s the most common reason
patients are admitted to the hospital, and it’s our number one
health care expense. We spend over a 100 billion dollars —
billion with a “B” — in this country every year on the treatment of heart disease. Just for reference, that’s more than
twice the annual budget of the state of Washington. What makes this disease so deadly? Well, it all starts with the fact that
the heart is the least regenerative organ in the human body. Now, a heart attack happens when
a blood clot forms in a coronary artery that feeds blood to the wall of the heart. This plugs the blood flow, and the heart muscle
is very metabolically active, and so it dies very quickly, within just a few hours
of having its blood flow interrupted. Since the heart can’t
grow back new muscle, it heals by scar formation. This leaves the patient with a deficit in the amount of heart
muscle that they have. And in too many people,
their illness progresses to the point where the heart can no longer keep up
with the body’s demand for blood flow. This imbalance between supply and demand
is the crux of heart failure. So when I talk to people
about this problem, I often get a shrug
and a statement to the effect of, “Well, you know, Chuck,
we’ve got to die of something.” (Laughter) And yeah, but what this also tells me is that we’ve resigned ourselves to this
as the status quo because we have to. Or do we? I think there’s a better way, and this better way involves the use
of stem cells as medicines. So what, exactly, are stem cells? If you look at them under the microscope,
there’s not much going on. They’re just simple little round cells. But that belies two remarkable attributes. The first is they can divide like crazy. So I can take a single cell,
and in a month’s time, I can grow this up to billions of cells. The second is they can differentiate
or become more specialized, so these simple little round cells
can turn into skin, can turn into brain, can turn into kidney and so forth. Now, some tissues in our bodies
are chock-full of stem cells. Our bone marrow, for example, cranks out
billions of blood cells every day. Other tissues like the heart
are quite stable, and as far as we can tell,
the heart lacks stem cells entirely. So for the heart, we’re going to have
to bring stem cells in from the outside, and for this, we turn to
the most potent stem cell type, the pluripotent stem cell. Pluripotent stem cells are so named because they can turn into
any of the 240-some cell types that make up the human body. So this is my big idea: I want to take human
pluripotent stem cells, grow them up in large numbers, differentiate them
into cardiac muscle cells and then take them out of the dish and transplant them into the hearts
of patients who have had heart attacks. I think this is going to reseed the wall
with new muscle tissue, and this will restore
contractile function to the heart. (Applause) Now, before you applaud too much,
this was my idea 20 years ago. (Laughter) And I was young,
I was full of it, and I thought, five years in the lab,
and we’ll crank this out, and we’ll have this into the clinic. Let me tell you what really happened. (Laughter) We began with the quest to turn these
pluripotent stem cells into heart muscle. And our first experiments worked, sort of. We got these little clumps of beating
human heart muscle in the dish, and that was cool,
because it said, in principle, this should be able to be done. But when we got around
to doing the cell counts, we found that only one
out of 1,000 of our stem cells were actually turning into heart muscle. The rest was just a gemisch
of brain and skin and cartilage and intestine. So how do you coax a cell
that can become anything into becoming just a heart muscle cell? Well, for this we turned
to the world of embryology. For over a century, the embryologists
had been pondering the mysteries of heart development. And they had given us
what was essentially a Google Map for how to go from a single fertilized egg all the way over to a human
cardiovascular system. So we shamelessly absconded
all of this information and tried to make human cardiovascular
development happen in a dish. It took us about five years, but nowadays, we can get 90 percent of our stem cells
to turn into cardiac muscle — a 900-fold improvement. So this was quite exciting. This slide shows you
our current cellular product. We grow our heart muscle cells
in little three-dimensional clumps called cardiac organoids. Each of them has 500 to 1,000
heart muscle cells in it. If you look closely, you can see these
little organoids are actually twitching; each one is beating independently. But they’ve got another trick
up their sleeve. We took a gene from jellyfish
that live in the Pacific Northwest, and we used a technique
called genome editing to splice this gene into the stem cells. And this makes our heart muscle cells
flash green every time they beat. OK, so now we were finally ready
to begin animal experiments. We took our cardiac muscle cells and we transplanted them
into the hearts of rats that had been given
experimental heart attacks. A month later, I peered anxiously
down through my microscope to see what we had grown, and I saw … nothing. Everything had died. But we persevered on this,
and we came up with a biochemical cocktail that we called
our “pro-survival cocktail,” and this was enough to allow
our cells to survive through the stressful process
of transplantation. And now when I looked
through the microscope, I could see this fresh, young,
human heart muscle growing back in the injured wall
of this rat’s heart. So this was getting quite exciting. The next question was: Will this new muscle beat in synchrony
with the rest of the heart? So to answer that, we returned to the cells that had
that jellyfish gene in them. We used these cells essentially
like a space probe that we could launch
into a foreign environment and then have that flashing
report back to us about their biological activity. What you’re seeing here
is a zoomed-in view, a black-and-white image
of a guinea pig’s heart that was injured and then received
three grafts of our human cardiac muscle. So you see those sort of diagonally
running white lines. Each of those is a needle track that contains a couple of million
human cardiac muscle cells in it. And when I start the video,
you can see what we saw when we looked through the microscope. Our cells are flashing, and they’re flashing in synchrony, back through the walls
of the injured heart. What does this mean? It means the cells are alive, they’re well, they’re beating, and they’ve managed
to connect with one another so that they’re beating in synchrony. But it gets even more
interesting than this. If you look at that tracing
that’s along the bottom, that’s the electrocardiogram
from the guinea pig’s own heart. And if you line up the flashing
with the heartbeat that’s shown on the bottom, what you can see is there’s a perfect
one-to-one correspondence. In other words, the guinea pig’s
natural pacemaker is calling the shots, and the human heart muscle cells
are following in lockstep like good soldiers. (Applause) Our current studies have moved into
what I think is going to be the best possible predictor
of a human patient, and that’s into macaque monkeys. This next slide shows you
a microscopic image from the heart of a macaque that was given
an experimental heart attack and then treated with a saline injection. This is essentially like
a placebo treatment to show the natural history
of the disease. The macaque heart muscle is shown in red, and in blue, you see the scar tissue
that results from the heart attack. So as you look as this, you can see how
there’s a big deficiency in the muscle in part of the wall of the heart. And it’s not hard to imagine
how this heart would have a tough time generating much force. Now in contrast, this is one
of the stem-cell-treated hearts. Again, you can see
the monkey’s heart muscle in red, but it’s very hard to even see
the blue scar tissue, and that’s because we’ve
been able to repopulate it with the human heart muscle, and so we’ve got this nice, plump wall. OK, let’s just take a second and recap. I’ve showed you
that we can take our stem cells and differentiate them
into cardiac muscle. We’ve learned how to keep them alive
after transplantation, we’ve showed that they beat
in synchrony with the rest of the heart, and we’ve shown that we can scale them up into an animal that is the best possible
predictor of a human’s response. You’d think that we hit all the roadblocks
that lay in our path, right? Turns out, not. These macaque studies also taught us that our human heart muscle cells created
a period of electrical instability. They caused ventricular arrhythmias,
or irregular heartbeats, for several weeks after
we transplanted them. This was quite unexpected, because
we hadn’t seen this in smaller animals. We’ve studied it extensively, and it turns out that it results
from the fact that our cellular graphs are quite immature, and immature heart muscle cells
all act like pacemakers. So what happens is,
we put them into the heart, and there starts to be a competition
with the heart’s natural pacemaker over who gets to call the shots. It would be sort of like if you brought a whole gaggle of teenagers
into your orderly household all at once, and they don’t want to follow the rules
and the rhythms of the way you run things, and it takes a while to rein everybody in and get people working
in a coordinated fashion. So our plans at the moment are to make the cells go through
this troubled adolescence period while they’re still in the dish, and then we’ll transplant them in
in the post-adolescent phase, where they should be much more orderly and be ready to listen
to their marching orders. In the meantime, it turns out
we can actually do quite well by treating with
anti-arrhythmia drugs as well. So one big question still remains, and that is, of course, the whole purpose
that we set out to do this: Can we actually restore function
to the injured heart? To answer this question, we went to something that’s called
“left ventricular ejection fraction.” Ejection fraction is simply
the amount of blood that is squeezed
out of the chamber of the heart with each beat. Now, in healthy macaques,
like in healthy people, ejection fractions are about 65 percent. After a heart attack, ejection fraction
drops down to about 40 percent, so these animals are
well on their way to heart failure. In the animals that receive
a placebo injection, when we scan them a month later, we see that ejection
fraction is unchanged, because the heart, of course,
doesn’t spontaneously recover. But in every one of the animals
that received a graft of human cardiac muscle cells, we see a substantial improvement
in cardiac function. This averaged eight points,
so from 40 to 48 percent. What I can tell you
is that eight points is better than anything that’s
on the market right now for treating patients with heart attacks. It’s better than everything
we have put together. So if we could do
eight points in the clinic, I think this would be a big deal
that would make a large impact on human health. But it gets more exciting. That was just four weeks
after transplantation. If we extend these studies
out to three months, we get a full 22-point gain
in ejection fraction. (Applause) Function in these
treated hearts is so good that if we didn’t know up front
that these animals had had a heart attack, we would never be able to tell
from their functional studies. Going forward, our plan
is to start phase one, first in human trials here at
the University of Washington in 2020 — two short years from now. Presuming these studies
are safe and effective, which I think they’re going to be, our plan is to scale this up
and ship these cells all around the world for the treatment of patients
with heart disease. Given the global burden of this illness, I could easily imagine this treating
a million or more patients a year. So I envision a time,
maybe a decade from now, where a patient like my mother
will have actual treatments that can address the root cause
and not just manage her symptoms. This all comes from the fact
that stem cells give us the ability to repair the human body from its component parts. In the not-too-distant future, repairing humans is going to go from something that is
far-fetched science fiction into common medical practice. And when this happens, it’s going to have
a transformational effect that rivals the development
of vaccinations and antibiotics. Thank you for your attention. (Applause)

71 thoughts on “Can we regenerate heart muscle with stem cells? | Chuck Murry

  1. Revelation 21: 4 " 'He will wipe every tear from their eyes. There will be no more death' or mourning or crying or pain, for the old order of things has passed away."

  2. Don’t forget to put on your pants in the morning. You wouldn’t want to live that nightmare where you go to school/work naked!

  3. If clinical trials of this cardiac muscle stem cell undergoes successfully then no doubt,medical science will progress a step forward…great thinking great initiative❤️❤️❤️

  4. When he mentioned vaccines I wonder if people will believe that stem cells give you autism or space aids

  5. He’s describing corrective action. Preventive action also has to be included. Deficiency most likely led to the disease condition. There’s way too much technology and science supporting what causes inflammation of the heart.

  6. Interesting research, good job! Stem cells have so much potential and they should definitely be researched more. They are especially interesting because in many cases they could be collected from the same person who is going to be the recipient of the graft, minimizing the possibility of rejection. The lack of a compatible donor would not be such a big issue anymore.

  7. Great achievement !!, Thanks to these wonderful Doctors who are achieving the best possible remedies with their dedication and hardwork.

  8. We have known this for years. You can go to Panama and get this now. Only American government hates it's people so much that they won't allow it in America.

  9. Just wondering, any idea if they were able to get the stem cells without killing any human embryos?

  10. TED is a far left anti western propaganda and brainwashing outlet who gives you from time to time science and tech issues but most of the the time try to pump and brainwash you with SJW topics.

  11. This has serious promise for the future. Another part of the heart disease issue is detection, allowing us to predict attacks. Excellent work.

  12. Is it not clear to those who inherit the earth in succession from its (previous) possessors, that had We willed, We would have punished them for their sins. And We seal up their hearts so that they hear not?

  13. This is the stuff i want to see. Not JUST gender related studies and feminist video's. Actual educational and interesting video's about toppics unrelated to belief, religion and SJW subtext (or just straight up context)

  14. the single most important decision you make on a daily basis is what you put in your mouth. that is where the problem lies. stem cells will not fix arterial plaque, so stop misdirecting everyone away from the source of the problem. vast majority of doctors only treat problems and rarely address the root cause to the detriment of all. That belly fat you are carrying around chuck points to your ignorance.

  15. To save time growing new organ ontop of old structure. With removed cells.
    Ad your own stem cells into the forign organ and forign cells get regected .your own stem cells take their place

  16. Finally something that has nothing to do with race. This is exactly what we need to be doing.

  17. This is an amazing discovery and has enormous potential. One factor he did not calculate for is human greed. Only those who will be able to afford these treatments from the very few doctors who offer it will get to live. Everyone else who can't pay, has no insurance, or state insurance will continue to suffer and die. Many of these amazing scientific medical break throughs would change our species function and health if distributed to everyone. Governments who rule this world won't allow it.

  18. The heart is the least regenerative organ in the body. It heals by scar formation. Stem cells divide very fast, and can turn into any type of tissue, skin, brain, heart etc. By coaxing stem cells to form into heart tissue, we can then inject them into a heart and regenerate the human heart! #TEDTalk

  19. 100 billion dollars every year dealing with the treatment of heart disease? So basically, the people who run the Western Allopathic "Medicine" industry a.k.a. the Pharma-Mafia are so beyond satanically making billions of dollars of the suffering of multitudes of people by convincing them to eat all sorts of food that comes from CAFO operations + processed food everywhere and related like huge amounts of synthetic sugar + GMO etc that affects their health detrimentally instead of morally/ethically and healthy raised animals for food + morally/ethically grown vegetables etc, convince them to drink alcohol to the point of beyond excess, convince them to take all sorts of Pharmaceutical drugs that only treat the symptoms and not the root cause of their health problems and then after convincing the majority of the public to live such a self-destructive lifestyle which they make billions off of, then claim you are going to 'help them' right? People should watch the video "If I Were the Devil" by Paul Harvey" … it is just absolutely insane how in America.. how corrupt, perverse, immoral, iniquitous it has become.. the population are lab roots for the Pharma-Mafia and Gov't etc and the utterly outrageous diabolist audacity to claim they want to help you.. when if they really did, they would have NEVER convinced you to live such a self-harming lifestyle in which they would further convince you need their pharma-drugs to be ok. They don't make money in the cure, but there are BILLIONS AND BILLIONS of dollars to be made OFF THE SUFFERING OF MYRIADS OF FOOLISH INTELLECTUALLY DULLED DOWN SHEEP! The absolute brazen unconscionable activity of the Western "Medicine" Cartel and all their purveyors and associates, is so beyond words satanic.. and now they are trying to sell you YET ANOTHER way to SPEND / EXTRACT your money from you to have a healthy heart when a total overhaul of the quality of food and drink in America should be made one of the primary focuses of the nation? So satanic how now they are trying to now sell this stem cell heart technology instead of teaching people how to actually live in ways that can make them live past 100 which is known in places in Italy, France, Japan etc.

    Playing God/Jesus with His creation (mankind) in the area of genetic engineering is a form of rebellion which is the utmost offence against the sole Creator, since as explained above, there are folks in southern Italy small towns etc for example who live past 100 and they have very strong hearts for their age and they eat tons of cheese, wine, meat, eggs, salad, veggies etc, and you know why they have such strong hearts? It's because they all the food they eat is locally grown with moral/ethiical standards, no processed foods, everything is made fresh from the land, no harsh chemicals are used etc.. and hence why they need technology like stem cells for heart problems because it's all about how you are eating and living, and if the same type of focus was put on the general diet in America, the ungodly satanic billions of dollars spent per year on the treatment of heart disease.. wouldn't be anywhere what it is now. In other words, rather than the 100+ billion dollar industry really care about you, they care instead to keep feeding you their 'treatments' and drugs etc so are their perpetual lab rat while making you actually think they truly care about getting to the root of the problem and truly healing you.

    All mankind WILL indeed have to face judgement day for the beyond words corruption of the mainline medical INDUSTRY in the West … and most will end up in the Lake of Fire, why? Because rather than have implemented a health care model that actually taught many non-immigrant Americans to buy food from local farmers who believe in moral/ethical food practices or even to teach the non-immigrant Americans who can do it to learn how to raise, butcher, prepare etc your own chickens, cattle, pigs, making your own cheese etc ike they do in southern Italy so you can live a true healthy life void of processed foods etc, instead, much of the population in America are lab rats for major industry food suppliers to make unimaginable revenue off by getting the people to eat food that isn't much all that real food anymore and hence the skyrocketing health issues … which is all by design.

  20. If only the 10 percent non-cardiac tissue doesn't interrupt the heart Functionality! Imagine an unwanted piece of bone sticks out of your heart!

  21. THE COLUMBINE SHOOTERS MOM GETS A CLIP. That loser should be jailed! No comments allowed so I'll leave a comment on every video! DO NOT CELEBRATE LOSER PARENTS THAT STOOD IN THE WAY OF HELP, when parents are responsible for their kids actions then we will see less death! SICKENING TO APPLAUD COLUMBINES SHOOTERS MOM SHAME,

  22. How awful we all just accept the words "We gave the monkeys an experimental heart attack" as it's nothing. No animal deserves that.

  23. Just another panhandler. Maybe stop eating garbage food, put some cardio in your life and floss your teeth. Educate yourself human!

  24. WOW the implications of this tech can be huge, I'm not an MD but if i understand correctly if it can be used for hurt muscle the basic principle should work for many other damaged organs like lungs, liever, kidneys…

  25. A few more TED talks like this and I gonna be almost immortal. Fortunately, euthanasia laws are also evolving 😀

  26. I have a question. What if the recipient is 80 years old. She can't reproduce anymore. How do you get the stem cell?

  27. Young people's stem cells must be better than old people's stem cells, what if you could turn the stem cells into heart cells before putting them into the body ? Is it better to put young people's heart cells into an old persons body ? Or do the stem cells have to copy your own bodies cells to work ? Maybe have same blood type ? What if we used stem cells to replace bone marrow ? Then the bone marrow can make the stem cells again ? Inject them into the bone instead of pulling them out of a bone ? What if you put young bone marrow into an old body ? What about stem cells to fix knee joint injury ? Can stem cells be used to fix bone structure because structure is everything

  28. I also heard of brain organoids which are in progress are those things that highly differentiatively and accurate can can this cause high risk of mutation in future ? #teded

  29. I need your help Chuck Murray! I've dealt with congestive heart failure and medication since Dec 2009 and I have gone from a hard-working father, husband and daily exercising freak to become a jobless, divorced hermit having enough energy to do simple chores around the home until I feel fatigue and exhausted. I am getting no help in Stem cell treatment here in New Zealand and am referred to nutrtionists, pacemakers and more medication. I really need your help Chuck!

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